Hyping Artificial Intelligence, Yet AgainPosted: January 4, 2014
Gary Marcus writes: According to the Times, true artificial intelligence is just around the corner. A year ago, the paper ran a front-page story about the wonders of new technologies, including deep learning, a neurally-inspired A.I. technique for statistical analysis. Then, among others, came an article about how I.B.M.’s Watson had been repurposed into a chef, followed by an upbeat post about quantum computation. On Sunday, the paper ran a front-page story about “biologically inspired processors,” “brainlike computers” that learn from experience.
This past Sunday’s story, by John Markoff, announced that “computers have entered the age when they are able to learn from their own mistakes, a development that is about to turn the digital world on its head.” The deep-learning story, from a year ago, also by Markoff, told us of “advances in an artificial intelligence technology that can recognize patterns offer the possibility of machines that perform human activities like seeing, listening and thinking.” For fans of “Battlestar Galactica,” it sounds like exciting stuff.
But, examined carefully, the articles seem more enthusiastic than substantive. As I wrote before, the story about Watson was off the mark factually. The deep-learning piece had problems, too. Sunday’s story is confused at best; there is nothing new in teaching computers to learn from their mistakes. Instead, the article seems to be about building computer chips that use “brainlike” algorithms, but the algorithms themselves aren’t new, either. As the author notes in passing, “the new computing approach” is “already in use by some large technology companies.” Mostly, the article seems to be about neuromorphic processors—computer processors that are organized to be somewhat brainlike—though, as the piece points out, they have been around since the nineteen-eighties. In fact, the core idea of Sunday’s article—nets based “on large groups of neuron-like elements … that learn from experience”—goes back over fifty years, to the well-known Perceptron, built by Frank Rosenblatt in 1957. (If you check the archives, the Times billed it as a revolution, with the headline “NEW NAVY DEVICE LEARNS BY DOING.” The New Yorker similarly gushed about the advancement.) The only new thing mentioned is a computer chip, as yet unproven but scheduled to be released this year, along with the claim that it can “potentially [make] the term ‘computer crash’ obsolete.” Steven Pinker wrote me an e-mail after reading the Times story, saying “We’re back in 1985!”—the last time there was huge hype in the mainstream media about neural networks.
What’s the harm? As Yann LeCun, the N.Y.U. researcher who was just appointed to run Facebook’s new A.I. lab, put it a few months ago in a Google+ post, a kind of open letter to the media, “AI [has] ‘died’ about four times in five decades because of hype: people made wild claims (often to impress potential investors or funding agencies) and could not deliver. Backlash ensued. It happened twice with neural nets already: once in the late 60’s and again in the mid-90’s.”
A.I. is, to be sure, in much better shape now than it was then. Google, Apple, I.B.M., Facebook, and Microsoft have all made large commercial investments. There have been real innovations, like driverless cars, that may soon become commercially available. Neuromorphic engineering and deep learning are genuinely exciting, but whether they will really produce human-level A.I. is unclear—especially, as I have written before, when it comes to challenging problems like understanding natural language.
The brainlike I.B.M. system that the Times mentioned on Sunday has never, to my knowledge, been applied to language, or any other complex form of learning. Deep learning has been applied to language understanding, but the results are feeble so far. Among publicly available systems, the best is probably a Stanford project, called Deeply Moving, that applies deep learning to the task of understanding movie reviews. The cool part is that you can try it for yourself, cutting and pasting text from a movie review and immediately seeing the program’s analysis; you even teach it to improve. The less cool thing is that the deep-learning system doesn’t really understand anything…
Gary Marcus is a professor of psychology at N.Y.U. and a visiting cognitive scientist at the new Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence. This essay was written in memory of his late friend Michael Dorfman—friend of science, enemy of hype.
- NYU “Deep Learning” Professor LeCun Will Head Facebook’s New Artificial Intelligence Lab (techcrunch.com)
- Facebook Hires Artificial Intelligence Expert For ‘Deep Learning’ Development (hothardware.com)
- Neuromorphics: The first big tech buzzword of 2014 (washingtonpost.com)
- The Artificial Intelligence Arms Race in Silicon Valley Is On (motherboard.vice.com)
- Facebook Enters Artificial Intelligence Research Arena (benzinga.com)
- Why Is Machine Learning (CS 229) The Most Popular Course At Stanford? (forbes.com)
- The Artificial Intelligence Arms Race in Silicon Valley Is On (blacklistednews.com)
- Brainlike computers, learning from experience (sott.net)
- What Facebook Wants With Artificial Intelligence (newyorker.com)